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descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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Background to this computer program:
www.wikipedia.com
[Hide]In 1948, Turing, working with his former undergraduate colleague, D. G. Champernowne, began writing a chess program for a computer that did not yet exist.

On March 9, 1949, Claude Shannon (1916-2001), a research worker at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New Jersey, presented a paper called "Programming a Digital Computer for Playing Chess." The paper was presented at the National Institute for Radio Engineers Convention in New York. He described how to program a computer to play chess based on position scoring and move selection. He proposed basic strategies for restricting the number of possibilities to be considered in a game of chess.

In 1950, Alan Turing (1912-1954) wrote the first computer chess program. The same year he proposed the Turing Test that in time, a computer could be programmed (such as playing chess) to acquire abilities rivaling human intelligence. If a human did not see the other human or computer during an imitation game such as chess, he/she would not know the difference between the human and the computer.

In 1951, Turing tried to implement his "Turbochamp" program on the Ferranti Mark I computer at Manchester University. He never completed the task. However, his colleague, Dr. Dietrich Prinz (born in 1903), wrote a chess playing computer program
for the Ferranti computer that solved simple mates-in-two moves. The first program ran in November 1951. The program would examine every possible move until a solution was found. It took about 15 minutes to solve a mate in two moves.

In 1952, lacking a computer powerful enough to execute the program, Turing played a game in which he simulated the computer, taking about half an hour per move. The game was recorded. The program lost to Turing's colleague Alick Glennie, although it is said that it won a game against Champernowne's wife. His Turing test was a significant and characteristically provocative and lasting contribution to the debate regarding artificial intelligence, which continues after more than half a century.[/Hide]

Turing fundamental questions:
1. Could one make a machine that could obey the rules of chess?
2. Could one make a machine that could solve problems?
3. Could one make a machine that could play a reasonably good game of chess (ordinary positions)?
4. Could one make a machine that could play chess to improve its game through experience?
5. Could one make a machine that would answer questions asked it unique from human influence?
6. Could one make a machine that would have feelings like you and I?

[pgn][Event "Friendly game"]
[Site "Manchester, England"]
[Date "1952.??.??"]
[EventDate "?"]
[Round "?"]
[Result "0-1"]
[White "Alan Turing"]
[Black "Alick Glennie"]
[ECO "C26"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "58"]

1.e4 {This game is of considerable historical interest since
it is arguably the first computer chess game. The British
mathematician and computer pioneer Alan Turing devised a chess
playing program which, for lack of a computer to program, was
operated with paper and pencil. This was the result when the
program played Alick Glennie, a colleague of Turing's.} e5
2.Nc3 Nf6 3.d4 Bb4 4.Nf3 d6 5.Bd2 Nc6 6.d5 Nd4 7.h4 Bg4 8.a4
Nxf3+ 9.gxf3 Bh5 10.Bb5+ c6 11.dxc6 O-O 12.cxb7 Rb8 13.Ba6 Qa5
14.Qe2 Nd7 15.Rg1 Nc5 16.Rg5 Bg6 17.Bb5 Nxb7 18.O-O-O Nc5
19.Bc6 Rfc8 20.Bd5 Bxc3 21.Bxc3 Qxa4 22.Kd2 Ne6 23.Rg4 Nd4
24.Qd3 Nb5 25.Bb3 Qa6 26.Bc4 Bh5 27.Rg3 Qa4 28.Bxb5 Qxb5
29.Qxd6 Rd8 0-1[/pgn]

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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Great Reference to Alan Turing Nathanael :) One of my all time Hero's!

And People must Never forget his Contribution to Ending World War 2 With his Amazing work involving Code Breaking! which just goes to show What the Human mind can do! even when against & facing what the Germans thought was an Unbreakable Code ? which it would have been in any Normal situation, but we had the Genius Alan Turing and a dedicated determined team of Code breakers, and I would like to point out most of them were Chess players! :)

http://www.bletchleypark.org.uk/content/hist/worldwartwo/captridley.rhtm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enigma_machine


W.C.N

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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Alan Turing was years ahead of his time (perhaps light years depending on what the distant future holds for computer chess); a brilliant mind. I wish I could have met him in life.

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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Yes! Nathanael most people forget though that Genius is fragile! if people treat them in the wrong way ? or life is not kind to them... then there are many Genius's that are just lost in History without anyone knowing they ever existed! sad

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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He was also a Left-Handed computer scientist :) (I am proud to say this as I am also Left-Handed).

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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@Nathanael Russell wrote:
He was also a Left-Handed computer scientist :) (I am proud to say this as I am also Left-Handed).


Personally I think the Best Scientist would be an Ambidextrous one! :)
then if you drop a Test Tube full of Acid :( you can Catch it before it hits the floor and burns a hole! using either hand that's Free! :)

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyBelow is the Analysis of the Alan Turing–Alick Glennie game

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Below is the Computer Analysis of the Alan Turing–Alick Glennie game above.

First using lichess.org online Analysis using Stockfish 6 which is OK But ? It's only done at (2) Seconds per move ??

So really it's just a Very Quick! Assessment of a game...the output however is quite interesting!

[pgn][Event "Casual game"]
[Site "http://lichess.org/oUNsthRe"]
[Date "2015.05.31"]
[White "Alan Turing (?)"]
[Black "Alick Glennie (?)"]
[Result "0-1"]
[WhiteElo "?"]
[BlackElo "?"]
[PlyCount "58"]
[Variant "Standard"]
[TimeControl "-"]
[ECO "C26"]
[Opening "Vienna Game, Falkbeer Variation"]
[Annotator "lichess.org"]

1. e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 { Vienna Game, Falkbeer Variation } 3. d4?! { (0,18 → -0,37) Inaccuracy. The best move was Nf3. } (3. Nf3 Nc6 4. Bb5 Bc5 5. O-O O-O 6. Nxe5 Nxe5 7. d4 Bd6 8. f4 Neg4 9. h3 Bb4 10. hxg4 a6 11. Bd3 d5 12. e5 Nxg4) 3... Bb4? { (-0,37 → 1,13) Mistake. The best move was exd4. } (3... exd4 4. Qxd4 Nc6 5. Qe3 Bb4 6. Bc4 O-O 7. Ne2 d5 8. Bxd5 Nxd5 9. exd5 Bxc3+ 10. bxc3 Qxd5 11. O-O Ne5 12. Ba3) 4. Nf3? { (1,13 → -0,76) Mistake. The best move was dxe5. } (4. dxe5 Nxe4 5. Qg4 d5 6. Qxg7 Rf8 7. a3 Bxc3+ 8. bxc3 Qh4 9. Be3 Nc6 10. Bb5 Bd7 11. c4 dxc4 12. Nf3 Qg4 13. Qxg4 Bxg4) 4... d6? { (-0,76 → 0,41) Mistake. The best move was Nxe4. } (4... Nxe4 5. Qd3 d5 6. dxe5 O-O 7. a3 Bxc3+ 8. bxc3 Bf5 9. Qe3 Nc6 10. Bd3 f6 11. Nd4 Nxd4 12. cxd4 fxe5 13. O-O exd4) 5. Bd2?! { (0,41 → -0,45) Inaccuracy. The best move was dxe5. } (5. dxe5 Nxe4 6. Qd4 Bxc3+ 7. bxc3 d5 8. c4 Be6 9. Rb1 c5 10. Qe3 Qa5+ 11. Nd2 Nxd2 12. Qxd2 Qc7 13. cxd5 Qxe5+ 14. Qe3 Qxd5) 5... Nc6 6. d5 Nd4 7. h4 Bg4 8. a4?! { (-0,64 → -1,16) Inaccuracy. The best move was Be2. } (8. Be2 Nxe2 9. Qxe2 O-O 10. a3 Ba5 11. b4 Bb6 12. O-O c6 13. dxc6 bxc6 14. Be3 a5 15. Rfd1 Bxe3 16. Qxe3 Re8 17. Qe2 h6) 8... Nxf3+?! { (-1,16 → -0,45) Inaccuracy. The best move was c6. } (8... c6 9. Be2 Nxe2 10. Qxe2 O-O 11. dxc6 bxc6 12. O-O Re8 13. Qd3 d5 14. Bg5 d4 15. Ne2 Rb8 16. c3 dxc3 17. Qxd8 Rexd8) 9. gxf3 Bh5 10. Bb5+ c6?! { (-0,50 → 0,31) Inaccuracy. The best move was Nd7. } (10... Nd7 11. Be2 O-O 12. Nb5 Bxd2+ 13. Qxd2 a6 14. Nc3 f5 15. Qg5 g6 16. a5 Rf7 17. Rh3 Qf8 18. Qg2 Qe7 19. O-O-O fxe4 20. fxe4) 11. dxc6 O-O 12. cxb7 Rb8 13. Ba6? { (0,43 → -0,91) Mistake. The best move was Rg1. } (13. Rg1 Qb6 14. Qe2 Qxb7 15. O-O-O Kh8 16. Bc4 Qc6 17. Rg3 Rfc8 18. Bb3 Bg6 19. Nb5 Bc5 20. Be3 a6 21. Bxc5 Qxc5 22. Nc3 Qb6) 13... Qa5?! { (-0,91 → 0,08) Inaccuracy. The best move was Bxc3. } (13... Bxc3 14. Bxc3 Nxe4 15. Qd5 Nxc3 16. bxc3 Qb6 17. Qb5 Qc7 18. Qd3 Bg6 19. Qc4 Rxb7 20. Kd2 Qxc4 21. Bxc4 Rc7 22. Be2 Bh5 23. Rhb1) 14. Qe2 Nd7 15. Rg1 Nc5 16. Rg5 Bg6? { (0,17 → 1,44) Mistake. The best move was Nxa6. } (16... Nxa6 17. Rxh5 Rxb7 18. f4 Nc5 19. f5 Qb6 20. f3 Ba5 21. Ra2 Bxc3 22. Bxc3 Nd7 23. Rg5 Qc6 24. a5 Rbb8 25. a6) 17. Bb5? { (1,44 → -0,06) Mistake. The best move was Bc4. } (17. Bc4 Ne6 18. Bd5 Nxg5 19. hxg5 a6 20. Nd1 Bxd2+ 21. Qxd2 Qc7 22. Ke2 Qe7 23. Ne3 Qxg5 24. Rh1 Qf6 25. Nc4 Kh8) 17... Nxb7? { (-0,06 → 2,01) Mistake. The best move was Ne6. } (17... Ne6 18. h5 Nxg5 19. hxg6 Rxb7 20. O-O-O h6 21. Qd3 Nh3 22. Qd5 Rc7 23. gxf7+ Rcxf7 24. Bc4 Qxd5 25. Bxd5 Nxf2 26. Rg1 Bxc3 27. Bxc3) 18. O-O-O? { (2,01 → 0,94) Mistake. The best move was h5. } (18. h5 h6 19. hxg6 hxg5 20. Bc4 Rbc8 21. gxf7+ Rxf7 22. Bxf7+ Kxf7 23. O-O-O Qc5 24. Qf1 Qc4 25. Qh3 Qe6 26. Qh5+ Qg6 27. Qg4 Qe6) 18... Nc5 19. Bc6? { (1,34 → -0,89) Mistake. The best move was h5. } (19. h5 h6 20. hxg6 hxg5 21. gxf7+ Rxf7 22. Bc4 Nxa4 23. Nxa4 Qxa4 24. Bxf7+ Kxf7 25. Qc4+ Kf8 26. c3 Qa1+ 27. Kc2 Qa4+ 28. b3 Qa2+) 19... Rfc8 20. Bd5 Bxc3?! { (-0,82 → 0,17) Inaccuracy. The best move was Nxa4. } (20... Nxa4 21. Nxa4 Qxa4 22. Bxb4 Qa1+ 23. Kd2 Qxb2 24. Bb3 Rxb4 25. Ke1 Kh8 26. Rxd6 f6 27. Rg3 Rd4 28. Rxd4 Qxd4 29. Kf1 Be8 30. Qe3) 21. Bxc3 Qxa4? { (0,31 → 3,23) Mistake. The best move was Qd8. } (21... Qd8 22. Bc4 Qe7 23. b3 Ne6 24. Rg3 Nf4 25. Qe3 Rxc4 26. bxc4 Qc7 27. Rg4 Qxc4 28. Rxf4 exf4 29. Qd4 Qxd4 30. Bxd4 Rb4 31. Bc3) 22. Kd2?? { (3,23 → 0,00) Blunder. The best move was h5. } (22. h5 Bxh5 23. Rxh5 Qb5 24. Qxb5 Rxb5 25. Bc4 Rb6 26. b3 Nd7 27. Rh2 h6 28. Rg1 Kf8 29. Rhg2 g6 30. Bd2 Kg7 31. Be3) 22... Ne6 23. Rg4?? { (0,00 → -6,61) Blunder. The best move was Bxe6. } (23. Bxe6 fxe6 24. Qd3 Rb7 25. Kc1 Rc6 26. h5 Be8 27. h6 g6 28. f4 Rf7 29. f5 exf5 30. exf5 Qf4+ 31. Bd2 Qa4 32. Bc3) 23... Nd4?? { (-6,61 → -0,84) Blunder. The best move was Rxb2. } (23... Rxb2 24. Bxb2 Rxc2+ 25. Ke1 Rxe2+ 26. Kxe2 Qb5+ 27. Ke1 Qxb2 28. Bxe6 fxe6 29. Kf1 Qb3 30. Rxd6 Qxf3 31. Rg2 Kf8 32. Rd7 a5 33. h5) 24. Qd3 Nb5? { (-0,71 → 1,27) Mistake. The best move was Rxb2. } (24... Rxb2 25. Rc1 Rb4 26. Rg5 Rb5 27. Rxg6 hxg6 28. Ra1 Rxd5 29. exd5 Qd7 30. Bxd4 exd4 31. Qxd4 Qc7 32. c4 Qxc4 33. Qxc4 Rxc4 34. Rxa7) 25. Bb3? { (1,27 → 0,00) Mistake. The best move was Rg5. } (25. Rg5 Nxc3 26. bxc3 Kf8 27. h5 h6 28. Bxf7 Bxe4 29. fxe4 hxg5 30. Be6 Ke8 31. Bxc8 Rxc8 32. Rg1 Qc6 33. Rxg5 Rc7 34. Rg6 Qb6) 25... Qa6 26. Bc4?! { (0,29 → -0,39) Inaccuracy. The best move was Rg5. } (26. Rg5 Qb6 27. Ke1 Qd8 28. Qe3 Kh8 29. Rxe5 Nxc3 30. bxc3 Qxh4 31. Ra5 Qf6 32. Rd3 h5 33. Rxa7 h4 34. Rd7 h3) 26... Bh5?! { (-0,39 → 0,57) Inaccuracy. The best move was Qc6. } (26... Qc6 27. Bxb5 Rxb5 28. Ke2 Rb6 29. Rgg1 Qc7 30. Rg3 Kh8 31. Rdg1 Qc6 32. Kf1 Qa4 33. Kg2 f6 34. Rh1 Bh5 35. Rg1 Bf7 36. Rd1) 27. Rg3? { (0,57 → -0,79) Mistake. The best move was Rg5. } (27. Rg5 g6 28. Rxh5 gxh5 29. f4 Rxc4 30. Qxc4 Qb6 31. Ke2 Nxc3+ 32. bxc3 exf4 33. Rg1+ Kf8 34. Rg5 Qb1 35. Qd3 Ke7 36. e5 d5) 27... Qa4? { (-0,79 → 0,66) Mistake. The best move was Qb6. } (27... Qb6 28. Ke2 Nxc3+ 29. bxc3 Qb2 30. Rd2 Rb6 31. Rd1 Rc7 32. Rg5 g6 33. Rgg1 Qa3 34. Ra1 Qc5 35. Bb3 Qxc3 36. Qxc3 Rxc3 37. Rxa7) 28. Bxb5 Qxb5 29. Qxd6?? { (0,17 → -4,13) Blunder. The best move was Qxb5. } (29. Qxb5 Rxb5 30. Ke3 Rc6 31. Ra1 a6 32. f4 f6 33. fxe5 dxe5 34. f3 Rd6 35. Rgg1 Kf7 36. Rgd1 Rxd1 37. Rxd1 Ke7 38. Ra1 Rb6) 29... Rd8 { White resigns } 0-1[/pgn]

Second below is a much more Reliable Assessment of the game done by Stockfish 6 at (30) Seconds per move.

[pgn][Event "Friendly game"]
[Site "Manchester, England"]
[Date "1952.??.??"]
[Round "?"]
[White "Alan Turing"]
[Black "Alick Glennie"]
[Result "0-1"]
[ECO "C26"]
[Annotator "Stockfish 6 64 (30s)"]
[EventDate "1952.??.??"]

{C26: Vienna Game: 2...Nf6, sidelines} 1. e4 e5 2. Nc3 Nf6 3. d4 {
last book move} Bb4 4. Nf3 $4 {forfeits the advantage} (4. dxe5 $142 $5 Nxe4 5.
Qg4 $16) 4... d6 {Prevents intrusion on e5} (4... Nxe4 5. Qd3 d5 6. Nxe5 $15)
5. Bd2 (5. dxe5 Nxe4 6. Qd4 Bxc3+ 7. bxc3 d5 8. Bb5+ c6 $14) 5... Nc6 6. d5 {
White gains space} Nd4 7. h4 (7. a3 $5 {deserves consideration} Bc5 8. h3 $11)
7... Bg4 8. a4 (8. Be2 Nxe2 9. Qxe2 O-O $15) 8... Nxf3+ (8... c6 $5 9. dxc6
bxc6 $17) 9. gxf3 $15 Bh5 10. Bb5+ c6 (10... Nd7 $142 $5 $15 {is noteworthy})
11. dxc6 $14 O-O 12. cxb7 Rb8 13. Ba6 (13. Rg1 Qb6 $14) 13... Qa5 (13... Bxc3
$5 14. Bxc3 Nxe4 $17) 14. Qe2 Nd7 (14... Bxf3 $5 15. Qxf3 Qxa6 $11) 15. Rg1 $14
Nc5 16. Rg5 (16. Bc4 Rxb7 17. Rg5 $14) 16... Bg6 (16... Qxa6 17. Qxa6 (17. Rxh5
$143 Qxb7 18. Rg5 Ne6 $17) 17... Nxa6 18. Rxh5 $15) 17. Bb5 (17. Bc4 $142 Ne6
18. Bd5 $16) 17... Nxb7 $4 {letting the wind out of his own sails} (17... Ne6
$142 $5 $11 {should be considered}) 18. O-O-O $4 {
there were better ways to keep up the pressure} (18. Bc4 $5 {
makes it even easier for White} d5 19. Bxd5 Be7 $18) 18... Nc5 $2 (18... f6
$142 19. Rg3 Nc5 $16) 19. Bc6 $4 {gives the opponent counterplay} (19. h5 $142
{the advantage is on the side of White} h6 20. hxg6 hxg5 21. gxf7+ Rxf7 22. Bc4
Nxa4 23. Bxf7+ Kxf7 24. Nxa4 Qxa4 25. Qc4+ Kf8 26. Kb1 $18) 19... Rfc8 $17 20.
Bd5 Bxc3 (20... Nxa4 $142 $5 21. Nxa4 Qxa4 22. Bxb4 Qxb4 $17 (22... Rxb4 $143
23. Kb1 Qa5 24. Bb3 $14)) 21. Bxc3 $11 Qxa4 $4 {
releasing the pressure on the opponent} (21... Qd8 22. Bc4 Qc7 23. h5 Nxa4 24.
hxg6 Qxc4 25. Qxc4 Rxc4 26. gxf7+ Kf8 27. Rxd6 Nxc3 28. bxc3 Rxc3 29. Rxe5 Rxf3
30. Rd7 $11) 22. Kd2 (22. h5 $142 {and the rest is a matter of technique} Bxh5
23. Rxh5 $18) 22... Ne6 $11 23. Rg4 $4 {overlooking an easy win} (23. Bxe6 $142
{is a viable option} fxe6 24. Qd3 $11) 23... Nd4 (23... Rxb2 $142 $1 {
and Black has triumphed} 24. Bxb2 Rxc2+ 25. Ke3 Rxe2+ 26. Kxe2 Qb5+ 27. Ke1
Qxb2 28. Bxe6 fxe6 $19) 24. Qd3 $17 Nb5 $4 {
with this move Black loses his initiative} (24... Rxb2 $142 $1 25. Rc1 Rb5 26.
Rxg6 hxg6 $17) 25. Bb3 $16 Qa6 26. Bc4 $4 {White has let it slip away} (26. Rh1
$5 Bh5 27. Rg5 $16) 26... Bh5 (26... Qc6 27. Bxb5 Rxb5 28. Kc1 $15) 27. Rg3 (
27. Rg5 g6 $11) 27... Qa4 (27... Qb6 $5 {is an interesting alternative} 28. Ke2
Nxc3+ 29. bxc3 Qd8 $15) 28. Bxb5 (28. b3 Qa6 $16) 28... Qxb5 (28... Rxb5 $2 29.
Qxd6 Rbc5 30. Rg5 $18) 29. Qxd6 $4 {what a pity, victory was in sight.} (29.
Qxb5 $142 {was necessary} Rxb5 30. Ke3 $14) 29... Rd8 $19 (29... Rd8 30. Ke1
Rxd6 31. Rxd6 Qe8 $19) 0-1[/pgn]

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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WOW! I just noticed this from Stockfish's Analysis above...

29. Qxd6 $4 {what a pity, victory was in sight.} (29.
Qxb5 $142 {was necessary} Rxb5 30. Ke3 $14) 29... Rd8 $19 (29... Rd8 30. Ke1
Rxd6 31. Rxd6 Qe8 ) 0-1

That could have been the First! Chess Computer/Engine ? Win!

smile   bigsmile  thumb up  lol  biggrin  think  clap wink

descriptionThe Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952) EmptyRe: The Grandfather of Computer chess: Alan Turing (1952)

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